The Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi

Upper level of Basilica with Equestrian statue of St FrancisThe Basilica di San Francesco is a distinctive landmark that can be seen from miles away as you approach Assisi.  As you draw nearer you can appreciate the huge supporting arcades.  The Basilica of St. Francis is considered one of the artistic highlights of medieval Europe, as well as one of the most important places of Christian pilgrimage in the world.  It is definitely a ‘must see’ while visiting or on pilgrimage as it continues to be a powerful place both for believers and art-lovers alike.  The basilica is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Order of Friars Minor more commonly known as the Franciscan Order.

The Basilica of St Francis, early dawnBrother Francis died in October of 1226 and less than two years later his disciple and fellow-worker Brother Elias (of Cortona) had plans underway for construction of a church in his honor.  The Friars Minor, Pope Gregory IX (who, as a cardinal, enjoyed a close friendship with Francis), and the people of Assisi were all involved in supporting the early construction of what became an incongruously grandiose and beautifully embellished memorial to a profoundly converse man who preached and lived a simple life of poverty, abstinence, and renunciation of worldly goods in search of a greater spirituality.

It is believed that Brother Elias, although devout, was more worldly that Francis, and the popularity of the Franciscan order through the ages owes a great deal to Elias’ marketing skills.

Side-hill view of Basilica St Francis, AssisiConstruction began in 1228.  The basilica was built into the side of a hill and actually consists of two churches known as the Upper Church and Lower Church, and the saint’s tomb which is yet below the Lower Church.  A site for the church was donated to Pope Gregory by Simone di Pucciarello on the western tip of Asio hill outside the Assisi city walls on what was known as the “Hill of Hell” where criminals were put to death.  It is now called the “Hill of Paradise”.

Francis was declared a saint on July 16, 1228 and the following day the pope laid the first stone of the Church of St. Francis.  The Lower Church was quickly finished by 1230, and on Pentecost May 25, 1230 the body of St. Francis was taken from its temporary burial place St. George, now the Basilica of Saint Clare of Assisi, to the Lower Church (or Lower Basilica).  The actual burial place was hidden in the earth beneath the high alter and sealed up with stone to protect St. Francis’ remains.  It was not till 1818 that the tomb of St. Francis was rediscovered beneath the high altar.  After being hidden for nearly 600 years the coffin was opened and Francis’ skeleton was found completely intact.  A new crypt was built first in neo-Classical style then later in a simpler neo-Romanesque style.  Thus modern pilgrims are able to approach the very tomb of St. Francis, which no medieval pilgrims were ever able to do.  (Notes from Sacred Destinations)

Construction was begun on the Upper Church in 1239 and completed in 1253.  Both churches were consecrated by Pope Innocent IV in 1253 and designated a Major Basilica in 1288.  On September 26, 1997 two earthquakes hit this region of Italy damaging many ancient buildings.  The Lower Church walls are nearly nine feet thick and were unscathed while the Upper Church with larger windows and walls only three feet thick were damaged.  An aftershock killed two Franciscan friars and two specialists while they were inspecting the damage to the Basilica.   Many of the frescoes of the life of St. Francis by Giotto in the Upper Church were destroyed in the collapse.  The basilica was closed for two years for restoration.

The Basilica of St Francis and lower piazza, early morning

The photo above shows the lower piazza and the side entrance to the Lower Church in the early morning before the activity of the day.  The alternating striped colors of the street almost seem like an escalator drawing you toward the grand side entrance.

Portico-Colonade L piazza-Basilica St FrancisBelow, a pilgrim is enjoying a time of reflection in the quiet of the early morning under the arched colonnade lining the sides of the Piazza Inferiore.  The colonnades were added in the 15th century.

Under the colonade of the lower piazza of the Basilica of St Francis of AssisiAn example of more recent artwork under the colonnade of the lower piazza.

Portico Art-Basilica St Francis

By mid day the piazza becomes a hub of activity with tourists and pilgrims.  Here are a couple of young art students on an “art venture”.

Young artists on the piazza of the Basilica of St Francis of Assisi

The side entrance to the Basilica of St Francis of Assisi from the lower piazzaThis is the grand side entrance to the Lower Church showing the stairway to the Upper Piazza and Upper Church and the benediction loggia on the left side of the facade and supporting curtain wall which was added in 1754.

Benediction Loggia, Bassilica, St Francis, Assisi

the pediment over the side entrance to the Basilica of St Francis of AssisiAbove the doors is an ornate pediment containing a large rose window, flanked by two smaller ones, called by some “the eye of the most beautiful church in the world.”

Rose detail-Side entrance Basilica

Pediment detail-Side entr Basilica St FrancisWooden decorations on the doors by Ugolinuccio da Gubbio done circa 1550.

Wood panel-door-Basilica Sr Francis AssisiThe upper piazza joining the lower of the Basilica of St FrancisThe Umbian view from the upper piazza of the Basilica of St FrancisSince the Basilica is located on the far western end of the hill it offers wonderful views overlooking the valley below.

The view from upper entrance of the Basilica of St FrancisThis is the view from the portico of the Upper Church showing the Franciscan Tau, PAX, and the equestrian statue of St. Francis.

Front entrance to the Upper Basilica of St Francis of AssisiThe Upper Church has white-washed brick facade and a Gothic doorway with a Romanesque rose window.

Detail of front Rose to Basilica St FrancisUpper level of Basilica with Equestrian statue of St FrancisSt Francis-Equestrian statue; b&wThis equestrian statue is one of my favorites showing Francis with his head hung low as he slinks back home after God has told him to “let go” of his dream of becoming a heroic “knight in shining armor” and to instead follow the way of Jesus.Bell tower  Campanile of Basilica St Francis of AssisiAs much as the outside architecture of the basilica is interesting and beautiful, the inside of the basilica is even more so.  It is frescoed from top to bottom by the leading artists of the day with works from Cimabue, Giotto, Simone Martini, and Pietro Lorenzetti.  Unfortunately photography was not permitted inside.  But taking time to experience the inside will convince you that it is as spectacular as the Vatican or St. Peter’s Cathedral in a simpler beauty.  Basilica tower w valley viewDiscovery Venture Tours has scheduled another Spirit Venture – “Chasing Francis” next year from March 19th to the 29th.  We will be spending 6 nights in Assisi and 4 nights in Rome.  Below is the brochure.    It was such an amazing experience many of us are going back.  Let us know if you are interested in joining us.

2014-9x12 Assisi Broch. inside-ProPhotoRGB-8 bit-350dpi-Edit2014-9x12 Assisi Brochure-outer

(Notes from Rick Steves, Sacred Destinations, and Wikipedia)

The Pantheon of Rome

While in Rome I visited the Pantheon.  I was really impressed by it.  When you consider its size, age, and structure it truly is an engineering marvel.  For starters I expected it to be out more in the open like the Colosseum for all the world to see, but instead it is sandwiched into a neighborhood.

As you are walking through the narrow streets of Rome and enter the Piazza della Rotunda, the Pantheon suddenly looms before your eyes … a huge monument of architectural triumph … having survived the test of time.  It is likely the best preserved of all the buildings of ancient Rome.

It was oringinally built in 27 B.C. as a temple to all (pan) gods.  It was damaged later by a couple of fires and was rebuilt by the emperor  Hadrian circa A.D. 120 and is perhaps the most influential building in art history.

The ancient portico columns are an impressive 40 feet high and are made of single pieces of red-gray granite taken from an Egyptian temple.  The holes in the triangular pediment once held a huge bronze Roman Eagle.

The porch ceiling was originally covered in bronze plating, but this was removed in the 17th century by the scavenging pope from the Barberini family.

The dome was the largest made until the Renaissance and is a testament to Roman engineering.  It became a model for the Florence cathedral, Michelangelo’s dome of the St. Peter’s, and even Washington D.C.’s capitol building.

The dome is set on a circular base and is as high (142 feet from the floor tho the rooftop) as it is wide.  It is made from concrete which was a Roman invention.  It gets lighter and thinner as it reaches the top.  The base is 23 feet thick and made from a heavier concrete mixed with travertine, but the top is less than five feet thick and is mixed with lighter volcanic rock.  The indentions or ‘coffered’ ceiling reduces the weight of the dome without losing strength.  The oculus, or eye-in-the-sky, is the only light source and measures nearly 30 feet across.  The floor is 1800 years old.  It has holes and slants toward the edges to let the rainwater drain off.    (Notes taken from Rick Steve’s excellent travel book on Rome)

The Pantheon survived the Dark Ages primarily due to being transformed into a church.  Centuries after Hadrian finished the rebuilding project the Roman Empire had been nearly completely evangelized and Emperor Phocas gave it to the church.  Then in the year 609  Pope Boniface IV transformed it into the church of Sancta Maria ad Martyres.  From that time on it has become a great reliquary, because the Pope wished it to be the final resting-place of the mortal remains of thousands of Christians, many of them martyrs, which until then had been buried in the Catacombs.

It was almost at the dawn of the Middle Ages that the dedication of the former Pantheon to the Christian Martyrs showed how deeply indebted the Church felt to those who had borne witness to Christ to the extreme of giving their lives for their faith.  Tarcisius, Agnes, Cecillia, Perpetua, and Polycarp are examples of Christian faith in Christ being stronger than all the legions of Rome.  “They had triumphed, like their Master, in the madness of the Cross, and so merited to be hymned and venerated down the centuries.”   (Notes from Opus Dei)